Malic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid found in certain fruits and wines.
Malic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid found in certain fruits and wines
What is Malic Acid?
Malic acid is one type of dicarboxylic acid and is the predominant acid in apples and other fruits. It is a multifunctional food additive that is used in the following food and beverage categories:
- Baked goods
- Dairy products
- Edible oils and fats
- Soft drinks
- Sugar preserves
- Confectionery and hard candy
- Alcoholic drinks
- Dry-mix beverages
- Puddings, jellies, and fruit fillings
Malic acid is an alpha hydroxy organic acid which is widely found in fruits, such as apples, cherries, plums, and vegetables. This acid is sometimes referred to as a fruit acid or, more specifically, an apple acid.
As part of metabolic pathways, it is naturally found in every living cell.
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Functions of malic acid include:
- pH control agent
- Flavor enhancer
- Flavor modifier
On the preservation function side of things, this acid is a powerful inhibitor of the growth of yeasts and some bacteria. It is more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid in inhibiting thermophilic bacteria, but is not as effective as lactic acid in suppressing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.
Application of Malic Acid
Malic acid has a wide range of applications in various industries, including food, beverage, pharmaceutical, and personal care. Some common applications of malic acid include:
- Food and Beverage: Malic acid is commonly used as a food additive to enhance the tartness and sourness of various food products, such as fruit-flavored candies, carbonated beverages, and fruit juices. It can also be used as a pH adjuster and a flavor enhancer in many other food products.
- Personal Care: Malic acid is used in personal care products, such as shampoos, conditioners, and skin care products, due to its ability to exfoliate and improve skin texture. It is also used as a pH adjuster and a buffering agent in many cosmetic formulations.
- Pharmaceutical: Malic acid is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, where it serves as a pH adjuster, a buffering agent, and a disintegrant.
- Industrial: Malic acid is used in various industrial applications, such as metal cleaning and electroplating, due to its chelating properties. It is also used as a component in some biodegradable plastics.
How does malic acid compare to other food acidulants? Here is the relative sourness, in arbitrary units, of malic and other organic acids compared to citric acid:
- Citric acid: 100
- Fumaric acid: 55
- Tartaric acid: 70
- Malic acid: 75
- Succinic acid: 87
- Lactic acid: 107
- Glucono-delta-lactone: 310
In terms of tartness, 0.362 – 0.408 Kg of this acid is equivalent to 0.453 Kg of citric acid and to 0.272 – 0.317 Kg of fumaric acid. Similar concentrations of organic food acids may have different pH’s which typically range from 2-3 at 1% concentration.
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Product Range Bulk Malic Acid
- Malic Acid Powder, FCC
- Malic Acid Regular, FCC
- Malic Acid Technical Grade
- Malic Acid Powder, USP NF-PhEur
- Malic Acid Liquid: A liquid form of malic acid specially crafted for the beverage industry, designed for ease of use in formulation and production.
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